The Temple of Ramesseum

Temple of the Ramesseum was built by Ramses II the as a funerary Temple in 1304-1207 B.C, and it was dedicated to the God Ra. Most of the Temple is in a very bad condition nowadays, or in ruins. The entrance to the Temple once had two pylons that have now collapsed. In the first courtyard, of the Temple, there is only a colonnaded hall that has survived.

RamesseumIn front of the ruins of the first pylon, there once stood a colossal statue of Ramses that was more than 1000 Tons in weight and 18m high! You can still see the remains of it today.

Many other Kings have superimposed monuments in the Ramesseum such as Mernptah and Ramses III.

The Greeks identified this as the Temple of Memnonium (they associated the colossal statue in front of the Temple with their legendry hero, Memnon, the son of Aurora who’s mother, Eos, was the Goddess of dawn. Also they sometimes called it “the tomb of Ozymandias”, a name that might have be derived from the ancient Egypt word “User-Maat-Ra”.

This huge Temple later inspired a poetic verse by Percy Bysshe Shelley: –

I met a traveller from an antique land who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand, Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown, And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, Tell that its sculptor well those passions read, Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things, The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed, And on the pedestal these words appear: “My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings: Look upon my works, ye Mighty, and despair!” Nothing beside remains. Round the decay of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare the lone and level sands stretch far away.

Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792-1822

The Roman historian, Diodorus, was under the impression that the Temple was the work of the legendry King called Ozymandias, and his tomb was located in there. He even give detailed descriptions of the tomb of Ozymandias and described the inscription that was on its entrance, which says: –

” I am Ozymandias, King of Kings. If anyone would know how great I am and where I lie, let him surpass any of my works.”

Ramesseum4

The Temple measures 600 feet by 220 feet. The eastern pylon of the Temple was the main entrance and was once decorated with scenes of the battle of Kadesh, but it is in ruins today! On the right wing of the pylon you will find inscriptions that represent the 118 cities that Ramses III had conquered during his military campaigns. You will also see scenes of prisoners taken to the King. On the left wing of the pylon there are scenes of the famous battle between Ramses II and the Hittites. After that you will proceed onto the first open courtyard, where you will see many damaged statues. Once there was a colossal statue of Ramses II, and at its feet, it read:

“My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings: Look upon my works, ye Mighty, and despair”

In the great hypostyle hall there are 29 columns that are still standing, the ones in the middle are shorter than those on the sides to allow light into the Temple! Here, on the left side, you can see more scenes of the battle of Kadesh.
On the right of this hall, and outside the walls of the hypostyle hall, lies a much older Temple, built by Seti I and dedicated to the God Amon Ra. The Second courtyard is in a much better condition, than the first one, and you can see on both sides, two rows of Osiris columns, representing Ramses II. Further south there is another small hypostyle hall that once had 8 papyrus-bud columns. In here the hall of astronomy is located, where the first 12th month calendar is illustrated. This hall is decorated with scenes of offering, and scenes of the sacred boat of Amon Ra. On the western wall you will see Ramses II sitting under the tree of life, where the God Thoth and the Goddess Seshat are recording his name, in the leaves of the tree, for long life.

If you go further into the western side, there are the ruins of two vestibules that lead you to a library, linen room and the badly ruined sanctuary, which was dedicated to the God Amon Ra.

To the south of the Temple, Ramses II built a great mud break palace where he stayed during his visits to the site. To the south of this section, lies the small Temple of Mern-Ptah, the successor of Ramses II. In 1896, the great Egyptologist, William Flinders Petrie, did extensive excavations at this site.

Petrie found here a very important Stella, known as the “Israel Stella”, which contained the first reference to the “Tribe of Israel”. Because of this Stella, many archaeologists believe that Mern-Ptah is very likely to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus

Ramesseum5

 Temple of karnak

Temple of Karnak

The Temple of Karnak is the largest Temple in the World! The complex contains a group of Temples such as the Great Temple of Amon Ra, The Temple of Khonso, The Ipt Temple, The Temple of Ptah, the Temple of Montho and the Temple of the God Osiris. Measures 20 m high, mud brick enclosure wall, surrounded all of these buildings.

Temple of Luxor

Temple of Luxor

Temple of Luxor Luxor Temple, or The Temple of Luxor, is among the most beautiful Temples in Egypt. It was known in the New Kingdom period as Ipt-Rsyt, which means the southern shrine. This was to differentiate between this Temple and Karnak Temple, which was the northern house of Amon Ra.

Temple of Hatshepsut

Temple of Hatshepsut

The Temple of Deir El-Bahri is one of the most characteristic temples in the whole of Egypt, due to its design and decorations. It was built of limestone, not sandstone like most of the other funerary temples of the New Kingdom period.

Temple of Abydos

Temple of Abydos

The Temple of Abydos is located to the west of El-Baliana, which is a town in Sohag Governorate. In ancient times it was called Abdu, and the Greeks called it Abydos. Abydos, the 8th province in ancient Egypt, this area is considered to be amongst the most famous archaeological sites.

temple of dandara

Temple of Dandara

The Temple is located about 4KM from the River Nile, on its west bank, roughly opposite the city of Qena, the capital of the province and governorate of Qena (population – 2,000,000), which is inhabited by both Coptic and Muslims.

Temple of Madinat Habu

Temple of Madinat Habu

The Temple of Medinat Habu is one of the largest memorial Temples in Egypt. It measures 320 m in length (East to west) and about 200 m in width (North to south)

 Temple of Ramesseum

Temple of Ramesseum

Temple of the Ramesseum was built as a funerary Temple in 1304-1207 B.C for Ramsis II, and it was dedicated to the God Ra. Most of the Temple is in a very bad condition, or in ruins. The entrance to the Temple once had two pylons that have now collapsed.

temple of kom ombo

Temple of Kom ombo

The Temple was mainly dedicated to the God Sobek, the crocodile God, together with his wife, in another form of the Goddess Hathor. The Temple is of Greco-Roman structure, dating back to the year 119 BC, when Ptolemy VI, who started the construction, built it out of limestone.

temple of edfu

Temple of Edfu

Edfu is located 60Km to the north of Aswan. It was the 2nd Nome of Upper Egypt and the centre of the cult of a triad of Gods, which consisted of Horus of Behdet, Hathor and their son, Hor-Sama-Tawy.

temple of philae

Temple of Philae

Philae Island was a rocky island in the middle of the River Nile, south of Aswan. It was called in Hieroglyphic “Apo” which means Ivory. It was also known by the Greek “Elephantine”, most probably because it was an important centre of trade, especially for ivory.

temple of esna

Temple of Esna

Esna is about 485 miles (776 Km) south of Cairo and lies on the west bank of the Nile. It was the ancient city of Senat, called Latopolis by the Greeks. The “city of the fish” where the Nile perch was worshipped.

temple of kalabsha

Temple of Kalabsha

So called after the village of Kalabsha which is located 65 KM south of Aswan dam. The city was known in ancient times with temples, and later in Greek was called Talames.

temple of abu simbel

Temple of Abu Simbel

The Temples of Abu Simbel are amongst the most interesting Pharaonic Temples. Located close to the southern border with the Sudan, it is 280 km south of Aswan and consists of two, rock-cut Temples, which both date back to the reign of King Ramses II (1290-1223 BC)

temple of derr

Temple of Derr

it is located 208 KM south of Aswan, the temple is cut out of native rocks during the time of king Ramses II, it was dedicated to god Petah and god Amon as well as Ramses II as a deified person. The temple walls are decorated with scenes representing Ramses II military campaigns against Nubia and scenes of offering to the god of the temple.

temple of wadi es-Sebua

Temple of Wadi es-Sebua

Temple of Wadi es-Sebua It s located 150 km south of Aswan, it has a temple built by the famous king Ramses II and it is considered the seconded biggest temple of the Nubian temples after the great temple of Abu- Simbel.

temple of dekka

Temple of Dakka

Temple of Dakka The temple was built by the Nubian Agher Amon who ruled at the time of king Ptolemy II, and later additions were added during the Greco-Roman times.

temple of amada

Temple of Amada

The temple was built at the time of the new kingdom by king Thutmosis III and Amenhotep II, It was dedicated to the god Amon Ra, and RA Hor –Ahkty.

temple of moharka

Temple of Moharka

Small temple that goes back the end of the Greco-Roman period, it is very simple since it is consisting of one hall with columns decorated with composite capitals.

temple of kiosk of qertassi

Temple of Kiosk of Qertassi

The Temple of Quertsi is dedicated to goddess Hathor goddess of love Music and maternity the temple is located to the south of Temple of Kalabsha next to Aswan high dam

temple of amenhotep-iii

Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III

The Mortuary Temple of Pharaoh Amenhotep III was built in the West Bank of the River Nile. This area boasts of many tombs which have historical and architectural significance.

temple of khentkaus-ii

Mortuary Temple of Khentkaus II

The Mortuary Temple of KhentKaus II is the temple of the Queen of Egypt. She was the wife of Egyptian Pharaoh Neferirkare and mother of Nefererfre and Nuiserre.

temple of neferefre

Mortuary Temple of Montuhotep II

Montuhotep II is regarded as the first Pharaoh of the middle Kingdom. He is credited for having united Egypt. In fact, he had ruled for a good fifty one years and thus put an end to what is called the intermediary Kingdom of the Egyptian civilization.

temple of niuserre

Mortuary Temple of Neferefre

The Mortuary Temple of Neferefre is also known as the Pyramid of Raneferef. This pyramid which is located in Abusir has indeed been started during the 5th century but has never been finished.

temple of neferirkare

Mortuary Temple of Neferirkare

The pyramid of Neferirkare is located at Abusir, the renowned necropolis in Egypt, which was started by Sahure, the predecessor of Neferirkare. This pyramid was started by Neferirkare himself, who was the 3rd ruler of the famous 5th Dynasty of ancient Egypt.

Mortuary Temple of Niuserre

Building pyramids for the Egyptian Pharaohs so that they could be buried with riches and all that they wished to take with them in their next life was not uncommon. It is a practice which found relevance among the Egyptian civilization since its inception.

temple of sahure

Mortuary Temple of Sahure

The mortuary temple or the Pyramid of Sahure is situated in Abusir, the huge necropolis of ancient Egypt, which is located very near to Cairo, on the bank of River Nile.

mortuary temple djedefre

Mortuary temple of Djedefre

The Pyramid of Djedefre is situated at Abu Rawash, a new necropolis chosen by Pharaoh Djedefre, in the western part of the Nile valley and at a distance of 8 Km to the north of Giza.

mortuary temple khafre

Mortuary Temple of Khafre

The Pyramid of Khafre is also known as the Pyramid of Chephren, as Khafre was also called by this name. It is the second highest pyramid, built in ancient Egypt, next to the famous Pyramid of his father Khufu.

mortuary temple khufu

Mortuary Temple of Khufu

The Pyramid of Khufu is also known as the Great Pyramid of Egypt, situated on the Giza Necropolis, over the Giza plateau, just outside Cairo city.

mortuary temple menkaure

Mortuary Temple of Menkaure

The Pyramid of Menkaure was built in Giza Necropolis, next to the huge pyramids of his ancestors Khufu and Khafre. But this pyramid is visibly the smallest among the three notable pyramids of this necropolis, with a height of only 65.5 meters.