The Temple of Deir El-Bahri (Hatshepsut)

The Temple of Deir El-Bahri is one of the most characteristic temples in the whole of Egypt, due to its design and decorations. It was built of limestone, not sandstone like most of the other funerary temples of the New Kingdom period.

It is thought that Senimut, the genius architect who built this Temple, was inspired in his design by the plan of the neighboring mortuary Temple of the 12th Dynasty King, Neb-Hept-Re. The Temple was built for the great Queen Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty), to commemorate her achievements and to serve as a funerary Temple for her, as well as a sanctuary of the God, Amon Ra.

In the 7th century AD, it was named after a Coptic monastery in the area, known as the “Northern monastery”. Today it is known as the Temple of Deir El-Bahri, which means in Arabic, the “Temple of the Northern monastery”. There is a theory suggesting that the Temple, in the Early Christian Period, was used as a Coptic monastery.

This unique Temple reflects clear ideas about the serious conflict between Hatshepsut, and her nephew and son in law, Tuthmosis III, since many of her statues were destroyed, and the followers of Tuthmosis III damaged most of her Cartouches, after the mysterious death of the queen.

The Temple consists of three imposing terraces. The two lower ones would have once been full of trees. On the southern end of the 1st colonnade there are some scenes, among them the famous scene of the transportation of Hatshepsut’s two obelisks.

On the north side of the colonnade there is a scene that represents the Queen offering four calves to Amon Ra.

The 2nd terrace is now accessed by a ramp; originally it would have had stairs. The famous Punt relief is engraved on the southern side of the 2nd colonnade. The journey to Punt (now called Somalia) was the first pictorial documentation of a trade expedition recorded, and discovered, in ancient Egypt; until now. The scenes depict in great detail, the maritime expedition that Queen Hatshepsut sent, via the Red Sea, to Punt, just before the 9th year of her reign (1482 B.C) This famous expedition was headed by her high official, Pa-nahsy, and lasted for 3 years. His mission was to exchange Egyptian merchandise for the products of Punt, especially gold, incense and tropical trees.

To the south there is the shrine of the Goddess Hathor. The court that leads to this chapel has columns, where Hathor, who is shown with a woman’s face and cow’s ears, is carrying a sistrum (a musical tool); on the walls she is depicted as a cow. In this part of the Temple, King Tuthmosis III erased the Queen’s names.

On the northern side of the 2nd colonnade, there is a scene depicting the divine birth of Hatshepsut. The Queen claimed that she was the divine daughter of Amon Ra to legitimise her rule.

Beyond the colonnade to the North are the chapel of Anubis, God of mummification and the keeper of the necropolis.

The 3rd terrace is also accessed by a ramp! It consists of two rows of columns, the front ones taking the Osirid form (a mummy form); unfortunately Tuthmosis III damaged them. The columns at the rear, sadly, have all been destroyed; also by Tuthmosis III!

The colonnade, which leads to the sanctuary of the Temple, has also been severely damaged. This sanctuary consists of two small chapels.

In the Ptolemaic period, a third chapel was added to the sanctuary which was also decorated with various scenes, the most remarkable being the ones representing Amenhotep, son of Habo (18th Dynasty) who, like Imhotep from the 3rd Dynasty, was another genius architect from Ancient Egypt.

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 Temple of karnak

Temple of Karnak

The Temple of Karnak is the largest Temple in the World! The complex contains a group of Temples such as the Great Temple of Amon Ra, The Temple of Khonso, The Ipt Temple, The Temple of Ptah, the Temple of Montho and the Temple of the God Osiris. Measures 20 m high, mud brick enclosure wall, surrounded all of these buildings.

Temple of Luxor

Temple of Luxor

Temple of Luxor Luxor Temple, or The Temple of Luxor, is among the most beautiful Temples in Egypt. It was known in the New Kingdom period as Ipt-Rsyt, which means the southern shrine. This was to differentiate between this Temple and Karnak Temple, which was the northern house of Amon Ra.

Temple of Hatshepsut

Temple of Hatshepsut

The Temple of Deir El-Bahri is one of the most characteristic temples in the whole of Egypt, due to its design and decorations. It was built of limestone, not sandstone like most of the other funerary temples of the New Kingdom period.

Temple of Abydos

Temple of Abydos

The Temple of Abydos is located to the west of El-Baliana, which is a town in Sohag Governorate. In ancient times it was called Abdu, and the Greeks called it Abydos. Abydos, the 8th province in ancient Egypt, this area is considered to be amongst the most famous archaeological sites.

temple of dandara

Temple of Dandara

The Temple is located about 4KM from the River Nile, on its west bank, roughly opposite the city of Qena, the capital of the province and governorate of Qena (population – 2,000,000), which is inhabited by both Coptic and Muslims.

Temple of Madinat Habu

Temple of Madinat Habu

The Temple of Medinat Habu is one of the largest memorial Temples in Egypt. It measures 320 m in length (East to west) and about 200 m in width (North to south)

 Temple of Ramesseum

Temple of Ramesseum

Temple of the Ramesseum was built as a funerary Temple in 1304-1207 B.C for Ramsis II, and it was dedicated to the God Ra. Most of the Temple is in a very bad condition, or in ruins. The entrance to the Temple once had two pylons that have now collapsed.

temple of kom ombo

Temple of Kom ombo

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temple of edfu

Temple of Edfu

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temple of philae

Temple of Philae

Philae Island was a rocky island in the middle of the River Nile, south of Aswan. It was called in Hieroglyphic “Apo” which means Ivory. It was also known by the Greek “Elephantine”, most probably because it was an important centre of trade, especially for ivory.

temple of esna

Temple of Esna

Esna is about 485 miles (776 Km) south of Cairo and lies on the west bank of the Nile. It was the ancient city of Senat, called Latopolis by the Greeks. The “city of the fish” where the Nile perch was worshipped.

temple of kalabsha

Temple of Kalabsha

So called after the village of Kalabsha which is located 65 KM south of Aswan dam. The city was known in ancient times with temples, and later in Greek was called Talames.

temple of abu simbel

Temple of Abu Simbel

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temple of derr

Temple of Derr

it is located 208 KM south of Aswan, the temple is cut out of native rocks during the time of king Ramses II, it was dedicated to god Petah and god Amon as well as Ramses II as a deified person. The temple walls are decorated with scenes representing Ramses II military campaigns against Nubia and scenes of offering to the god of the temple.

temple of wadi es-Sebua

Temple of Wadi es-Sebua

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temple of dekka

Temple of Dakka

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temple of amada

Temple of Amada

The temple was built at the time of the new kingdom by king Thutmosis III and Amenhotep II, It was dedicated to the god Amon Ra, and RA Hor –Ahkty.

temple of moharka

Temple of Moharka

Small temple that goes back the end of the Greco-Roman period, it is very simple since it is consisting of one hall with columns decorated with composite capitals.

temple of kiosk of qertassi

Temple of Kiosk of Qertassi

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temple of amenhotep-iii

Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III

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temple of khentkaus-ii

Mortuary Temple of Khentkaus II

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temple of neferefre

Mortuary Temple of Montuhotep II

Montuhotep II is regarded as the first Pharaoh of the middle Kingdom. He is credited for having united Egypt. In fact, he had ruled for a good fifty one years and thus put an end to what is called the intermediary Kingdom of the Egyptian civilization.

temple of niuserre

Mortuary Temple of Neferefre

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temple of neferirkare

Mortuary Temple of Neferirkare

The pyramid of Neferirkare is located at Abusir, the renowned necropolis in Egypt, which was started by Sahure, the predecessor of Neferirkare. This pyramid was started by Neferirkare himself, who was the 3rd ruler of the famous 5th Dynasty of ancient Egypt.

Temple of Niuserre

Mortuary Temple of Niuserre

Building pyramids for the Egyptian Pharaohs so that they could be buried with riches and all that they wished to take with them in their next life was not uncommon. It is a practice which found relevance among the Egyptian civilization since its inception.

temple of sahure

Mortuary Temple of Sahure

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mortuary temple djedefre

Mortuary temple of Djedefre

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mortuary temple khafre

Mortuary Temple of Khafre

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mortuary temple khufu

Mortuary Temple of Khufu

The Pyramid of Khufu is also known as the Great Pyramid of Egypt, situated on the Giza Necropolis, over the Giza plateau, just outside Cairo city.

mortuary temple menkaure

Mortuary Temple of Menkaure

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